Best Nootropics for Vitality and Aging

Nootropic Supplements for Vitality, Health, and Aging

Aging is a normal part of life, and for most people it’s a natural process that reflects the quality and choices of their life.  Some people choose to consume substances which have detrimental effects on their health.  Other people choose to consume foods and supplements which have a positive effect on their vitality and aging.  Nootropics are some of the Earth’s natural ways of biohacking the mind and body to produce greater vitality, stronger health, and better aging.

Top Nootropics for Vitality, Health, & Anti-Aging

These are the best herbs for any vitality or aging-related nootropic stack.

Cordyceps Mushroom

Cordyceps Mushroom

Cordyceps Mushroom has been one of the most popular nootropics in Chinese and Asian medicine for thousands of years (Sung et al., 2017). Most modern evidence of the vitality assets provided by Cordyceps revolves around its antioxidant properties (Paterson, 2008). Because of these powerful antioxidant properties, the fungus has been used to prevent and reverse age-related diseases.  It is said that the mushroom’s vitality-increasing properties stems from its powerful polysaccharides, which enhance the speed and duration of the immune response development (2008). There are other studies which have outlined the mushroom’s ability to combat aging changes in gene expression throughout the brain and muscle tissues (Wood & Mastaloudis, 2010).  This same study suggested the mushroom may have a positive effect on an overall healthy lifespan (2010).

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola has been considered one of the most versatile nootropics available, being used throughout Asian and all Eastern cultures for thousands of years (Chevallier, 2016). The herb has a substantial reputation throughout India and Asia for its potent vitality-bolstering effects. It is even purportedly able to reduce the progression of aging. While these effects may be attributed largely to the herb’s ability to boost memory and brain function, it also improves libido and the body’s overall energy production.  It is even an adaptogen, removing a lot of the body’s toxic stresses and speeding up collagen formation [which offers many reparative properties as well] (2016).  In addition to these vitality-improving qualities, it also treats cellulite and vericose veins (Murray & Pizzorno, 1998).  Additionally, it alleviates headaches, migraines (Gohil et al., 2010), and has been used as a natural energy drink (Orr, 2014).

Panax Ginseng

Panax Ginseng has been around for thousands of years, being celebrated as such a lucrative crop there have been wars surrounding control over its growth (Chevallier, 2016). It is a popular dietary supplement, largely for its use as a general wellness herb (Beshara, 2019). It is considered one of the most famous and potent adaptive tonics used throughout Chinese medicine (Orr, 2014). As a life-enhancing tonic, it has been relied upon in both Eastern and Western cultures for its potent ability to stimulate circulation and regulate blood sugar fluctuations (Conkling & Wong, 2006).  It also has the power to moderate blood pressure (2006). Panax is frequently used for its ability to improve kidney function, cool fevers, and regulate digestion (Orr, 2014). It is also typically turned to for its awesome rejuvenation and detoxifying properties (Balch, 2010). While it is a powerful anti-oxidant and youth-preserving herb, it is also used to stimulate and strengthen the heart, and regulate the central nervous system (Walker & Brown, 1998).

Red Reishi Mushroom

Red Reishi

Red Reishi Mushroom is another popular Chinese and Asian tonic nootropic, regularly used throughout these cultures for thousands of years (Knechtges,1996).  Due to its incredible vitality-boosting properties, the fungus has even been called the “Mushroom of Immoratlity” (1996). It has been purportedly able to offer anti-disease properties, fighting and preventing most major diseases of modern times (Paterson, 2006). Red Reishi is a powerful antioxidant, contributing to its regular use as a general longevity herb (Cor et al., 2018).  It is said these vitality enhancing properties come from the mushroom’s proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, and bioactive compounds, which offer incredibly therapeutic effects for the entire mind and body (2018).

Tongkat Ali

Tongkat Ali has been a powerful presence amongst folklore and throughout much of Indonesian culture as a versatile tonic, holistic medicine, and general health supplement (Rehman et al., 2016).  It has wonderful benefit on physical performance, making it popular in the athletic community and nootropic stacks alike (Khanijo & Jiraungkoorskul, 2016). Tongkat Ali has been used to treat diarrhea, constipation and indigestion, aches, and even osteoporosis (Rehman et al., 2016). It can be used to treat syphilis, glandular swelling, and even certain cancer ailments.  Many cultures now use the herb for its purported anti-aging properties (2016).

Last Notes On Using Vitality and Anti-Aging Nootropic Supplements

While there may be no secret to getting older, there are most certainly secrets to aging more gracefully. The clinical trials which back these nootropic supplements also prove that it is possible to improve fluid intelligence, increase natural vitality, and improve the overall health of an individual during the aging process. The nootropics on this list offer some of the most profound benefits in terms of improving vitality, and they are excellent choices for any nootropic stack.  It is even feasible (and encouraged) to combine these nootropics to form more complete vitality-bolstering compounds!

A Note From NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.

Sources

Balch, P. (2010). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Fifth Edition. Avery Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-58333-400-3

Beshara, J., Engle, D., and Haynes, K. (2019). Beyond Coffee. Monocle Publishing. ISBN 9781544505459

Chevallier, A. (2016). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Third Edition. DK Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-4654-4981-8

Conkling, W. and Wong, D. (2006). The Complete Guide to Vitamins and Supplements: The Holistic Path to Good Health. Avon Health Publishing. New York, NY. ISBN: 978-0-06-076066-3.

Cör, D., Knez, Ž., and Knez Hrnčič, M. (2018). Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Vol. 23(3). Pp. 649. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030649

Gohil, K., Patel, J., & Gajjar, A. (2010). Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. Vol. 72(5). Pp. 546–556. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.78519

Khanijo, T., and Jiraungkoorskul, W. (2016). Review Ergogenic Effect of Long Jack, Eurycoma Longifolia. Pharmacognosy reviews, Vol. 10(20). Pp. 139–142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.194041

Knechtges, D. (1996). Wen Xuan or Selections of Refined Literature. 3. Princeton University Press. Pp. 201-211. ISBN 9780691021263.

Murray, M., and Pizzorno, J., (1998). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Third Edition. Atria Paperback. ISBN 978-1-4516-6300-6

Orr, S. (2014). The New American Herbal. Clarkson Potter Publishers. New York, New York. ISBN 978-0-449-81993-7

Paterson, R. (2008). Cordyceps: a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?. Phytochemistry. Vol. 69(7). Pp. 1469–1495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.01.027

Rehman, S. U., Choe, K., and Yoo, H. H. (2016). Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 21(3). Pp. 331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21030331

Sung, G., Hywel-Jones, N., Sung, J., Luangsa-ard, J., Shrestha, B., and Spatafora, J. (2007). Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Stud Mycol. Vol. 57(1). Pp. 5–59. DOI:10.3114/sim.2007.57.01

Walker, L., and Brown, E. (1998). The Alternative Pharmacy. Prentice Hall Press. Paramus, New Jersey.  ISBN 0-7352-0021-1 Wood, S. & Mastaloudis, A. (2010). New Studies Show Significant Anti-Aging Benefits of Cordyceps: Chinese Mushroom Improves Youthful Genetic Expression. Cision PR Newswire. Nu Skin Enterprises. PROVO, Utah. Retrieved from: multivu.prnewswire.com/mnr/nuskin/46586/

Best Nootropics for Circulatory Issues

Nootropic Supplements Used for Circulatory Issues

Poor circulation can affect people of all ages for many different reasons. Some people suffer from atherosclerosis, others have had heart attacks, valve replacements, strokes, or cardiac ischemia. There are circulatory issues which are genetic and have run in a family for generations.  There are also issues with circulation systems that have been abused or mistreated (too much alcohol, smoking, etc.).  Regardless of the cause, there is a high likelihood nootropics can help!*

Top Nootropic Supplement for the Circulatory System

This is the best nootropic supplement for improving the overall circulatory system and helping with circulatory issues.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba is one of the oldest nootropics used on Earth, even having earned a strong place in ancient Chinese medicine (Chevallier, 2016, Roland & Nergard, 2012). There are many published, clinical studies which have highlighted Ginkgo’s ability to enhance circulation and blood flow throughout the body (Balch, 2010). Some of these studies have even been published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (2010).  The leaves of the plant are known to produce some of the nootropic’s most powerful medicinal properties in terms of improving circulation (Chevallier, 2016). Generally, these incredible circulation-improving properties are extracted from the leaves to produce either a tincture or pill.  The herb’s extract is also considered a potent enhancer of cerebral blood flow.  The extract inhibits the platelet activating factor (PAF), reducing the likelihood of a blood clot and stroke (2016).

Due to Ginkgo’s incredible improvements to circulation, it is often considered a natural treatment for erectile dysfunction (Murray & Pizzorno, 1998).  There have been numerous studies which have proven the herb’s ability to improve erections in individuals suffering from this dysfunction. These studies have even revealed the herb’s ability to improve erectile function in individuals suffering dysfunction as a side effect of antidepressant drugs (1998).  In general, Ginkgo has been proven to offer amazing blood flow benefits to the lower region of the body (Conkling & Wong, 2006).

Last Notes on Using Nootropic Supplements for Circulatory Issues

Nootropics have a lot of powerful capability of all types, and some of them can help improve circulation. And while this nootropic is best for improving the general circulatory system, it is worth noting that there are many nootropics which can also specifically help with improving cerebral blood flow. Whether the goal is to improve the entire circulatory system or the blood flow to the brain, there are many nootropic solutions which can help, and which would be an excellent benefit to almost any nootropic stack.

A Note From NooFiles*

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.

Sources

Balch, P. (2010). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Fifth Edition. Avery Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-58333-400-3

Chevallier, A. (2016). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Third Edition. DK Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-4654-4981-8

Conkling, W. and Wong, D. (2006). The Complete Guide to Vitamins and Supplements: The Holistic Path to Good Health. Avon Health Publishing. New York, NY. ISBN: 978-0-06-076066-3.

Murray, M., and Pizzorno, J., (1998). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Third Edition. Atria Paperback. ISBN 978-1-4516-6300-6 Roland, P. and Nergård, C. (2012). Ginkgo biloba–effekt, bivirkninger og interaksjoner [Ginkgo biloba–effect, adverse events and drug interaction]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. Vol. 132(8). Pp. 956-9. Norwegian. DOI: 10.4045/tidsskr.11.0780

Best Nootropics for Vision

Nootropic Supplements Used for Improving Vision

For some folk, vision is one of the most troubling attributes of life.  For some people, eyesight has always been a bit of a challenge. For others, as age sets in, eyesight can begin to dwindle.  Things become blurry and it can become harder to read.  As these challenges set in, finding real answers becomes far more important and nootropics are most certainly a real option.  While there may not be many nootropics which help with eyesight, there is one which stands out as a clear winner.

Glasses

Top Nootropic Supplement for Vision and Eyesight

Unfortunately, there are not many nootropics for vision, but there is one which takes the cake in terms of improving eyesight.

Citicoline

Citicoline is one of the nootropics already found naturally occurring in the body, especially within the organs (Wisher, 2012).  For this reason, it makes great sense as an option to improve a deficit such as vision.  It is able to improve neurotransmitter levels in the central nervous system and can help manipulate the synthesis of phospholipid cellular membranes (Iulia et al., 2017).  It can help improve cognitive impairments, including those related to some neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive impairments which affect eyesight (Gareri et al., 2015). In fact, it has been purported that Citicoline could improve the retinal and postretinal visual pathways by manipulating the stimulation of the dopaminergic system (Iulia et al., 2017). 

There is a lot of research that has proved the nootropic’s ability to positively impact contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and visual evoked responses (2017). It can even slow the progression of the neurodegenerative disorder glaucoma (Grieb, 2014).  These neuroprotective effects are especially impressive when one considers that the benefits exist alongside insane intracular pressure (Iulia et al., 2017). Citicoline has even been used to improve lazy eye (amblyopia), and it has been shown to offer incredible benefit to visual acuity (Pawar et al., 2014).

Last Notes on Using Vision Nootropic Supplements

Although there are not many nootropics which help improve eyesight, there are most certainly some which are proven to help.  Citicoline is backed by clinical studies and loads of empirical research. This nootropic is perfect for any nootropic stack that is looking for an edge in terms of vision and seeing better.  In terms of nootropics, it offers many other benefits as well.

A Note From NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.

Sources

Gareri, P., Castagna, A., Cotroneo, A. M., Putignano, S., De Sarro, G., & Bruni, A. C. (2015). The role of citicoline in cognitive impairment: pharmacological characteristics, possible advantages, and doubts for an old drug with new perspectives. Clinical interventions in aging. Vol. 10. Pp. 1421–1429. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S87886

Grieb P. (2014). Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues. CNS drugs. Vol. 28(3). Pp. 185–193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-014-0144-8

Iulia, C., Ruxandra, T., Costin, L., Liliana-Mary, V. (2017). Citicoline – a neuroprotector with proven effects on glaucomatous disease. Rom J Ophthalmol. Vol. 61(3). Pp. 152-158. DOI: 10.22336/rjo.2017.29. PMID: 29450391; PMCID: PMC5710031.

Pawar, P., Mumbare, S., Patil, M., & Ramakrishnan, S. (2014). Effectiveness of the addition of citicoline to patching in the treatment of amblyopia around visual maturity: a randomized controlled trial. Indian journal of ophthalmology. Vol. 62(2). Pp. 124–129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0301-4738.128586 Wisher D. (2012). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. 37th ed. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA. Vol. 100(1). Pp. 75–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.100.1.018

Best Nootropics for Memory and Memory Recall

Nootropic Supplements Used for Memory

As humans age, so does their fluid intelligence (Kievit et al., 2018).  Memory becomes slower, sluggish, and more difficult to access.  It can be hard to both remember things and recall those memories.  Fortunately, there are natural, holistic ways to better store and retrieve memory. There are many nootropic supplements known to produce better cognitive function and improved memory (Chevallier, 2016). And adding one or more nootropics for memory and cognitive function is ideal for most nootropic stacks.

Top 12 Nootropic Supplements for Memory

These are the best nootropics for any stacks focused on cognitive support, memory, and memory recall.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa is one of the most effective nootropics for cognitive benefits, including memory (Chevallier, 2016).  It also helps assist with executive function, concentration, learning, and overall cognitive function.  It has been proven to reduce actual learning time (2016).  Bacopa has a place in Ayurvedic medicine, being directly associated with the brain and bolstering mental acuity (Stough et al., 2001). Traditional Indian holistic healing is well-known for its insanely potent memory-boosting ability (Walker & Brown, 1998).  It has also been proven to improve the memory retrieval process (Stough, 2011).

Citicoline

Citicoline is proven to offer improved brain metabolism by manipulating numerous neurotransmitters (Secades & Lorenzo, 2006).  It has been shown through much empirical research to improve multiple cognitive rating scales.  Citicoline is also able to produce many neuroprotective effects, benefiting neuroendocrine cells. These cells are critical in sending and receiving information with the nervous system (2006). Citicoline can even reduce the progression of some neurodegenerative conditions and cognitive impairments (Grieb, 2014). Many studies have revealed Citicoline’s CDP potential to improve density of dopamine receptors (Gimenez et al., 1991) and ultimately improve learning and memory performance (Secades & Lorenzo, 2006). One study even suggested that the regular use of Citicoline can be used to directly reduce memory loss suffered from aging (Nakazaki et al., 2020).

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginko Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba has thousands of years of history of improving memory, concentration, and brain focus (Chevallier, 2016).  A lot of the herb’s memory-boosting abilities are attributed to its benefits to cerebral blood flow and blood circulation.  It has been proven that improving cerebral circulation provides a natural improvement to memory and concentration (2016). There are studies which outline the herb’s ability to improve short-term and long-term memory (Balch, 2010). These same studies even reveal the herb’s ability to improve the peripheral circulation system, which also enhances natural brain function (2010).

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola may be one of the more versatile nootropics on this list, however, it most certainly retains its value in terms of a cognitive and memory enhancer. It is very frequently used throughout Eastern cultures for its ability to strengthen memory and cognitive function (Chevallier, 2016). Gotu Kola’s use as a cognitive enhancer and memory booster dates back thousands of years (Gohil et al., 2010). It has even been suggested as a way to “maximize one’s learning potential and memory” (Orr, 2014). Some studies have proven Gotu Kola’s ability to slow natural memory loss often suffered in elderly years (Walker & Brown, 1998). Gotu Kola is commonly used in Asian and Indian cultures for its ability to improve concentration, mostly thanks to its adaptogenic properties, concentration boost, and increase to attention span, alertness, and focus (Farhana et al., 2016).

Huperzine A

Huperzine A comes from a moss regularly hailed by chinese medicine for its abiltiy to improve cognitive function (Zangara, 2003). In fact, it has been used for thousands of years throughout traditional Chinese medicine for its memory-boosting capabilities (Walker & Brown, 1998). Even to this day it is used in Chinese culture for its memory-boosting and mental-capacity increasing properties (1998). Mostly these properties come from the herb’s ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (Zangara, 2003). This is the same reason the herb is able to produce many neuroprotective properties (2003). Huperzine A has proven its value to many patient’s suffering neurodegenerative disorders, espeically Alzheimer’s disease (Beshara et al., 2019). There are many recent studies which outline Huperzine A as an effective herb for combating the symptoms of Alzheimer’s and efficiently promoting boosts to overall memory (2019).

Lion’s Mane Mushroom

Lions-Mane

Lion’s Mane Mushroom is one of the most commonly mentioned nootropics when it comes to cognitive enhancement and memory. Recent studies have backed its notoriety as a memory booster, proving the herb can enhance cognitive function and improve overall mild cognitive impairment (Beshara et al., 2019). Lion’s Mane has most certainly asserted its strong influence on a variety of mental attributes including concentration, attention-span, and memory (Nagano et al., 2010). The mushroom has significantly proven its ability to boost overall cognitive function scores, including memory (Mori et al., 2009). This increase in cognitive ability and memory appears to increase with regular, daily use (2009). A lot of studies seem to indicate that the herb’s neuroprotective and antioxidant properties contribute heavily to its memory enhancing abilities (Kushari et al., 2019).

Longvida Curcumin

Tumeric (Longvide curcumin) is native to Asia and India and is commonly used as a nootropic for many purposes (Chevallier, 2016).  There have been a number of studies which have revealed Curcumin to have a significant ability to increase memory in many study participants (Cox et al., 2015).  These same studies also outline the herb’s ability to improve overall cognitive function.  Specifically, the study proved a higher attention span, and working memory performance (2015). There are many other studies which prove the herb offers powerful boosts to working memory, with these benefits stemming from its anti-amyloid brain effects (Small et al., 2018).  These study results show decreased plaque accumulation in the brain regions which are known to modulate memory (2018).

L-Theanine

L-Theanine is derrived from Camellia sinensis (aka herbal tea), and it is a part of the second highest beverage consumed on the planet (Twilley & Lall, 2018). While L-Theanine is well-known for its general boosts to cognitive performance, there are many modern studies which show the nootropic has the potential to improve concentration and learning ability (Vuong et al., 2011). Part of the nootropic’s improvement to memory and cognitive ability come from its ability to increase cerebral blood flow, especially when it is combined with caffeine (Dodd et al., 2015). These contributions to brain health are the reported reasons for the nootropic’s cognitive benefits (2015). L-Theanine supplies the brain with increased subjective alertness, which also benefits cognitive function (Giesbrecht et al., 2010).  This is one of the biggest reasons it improves performance of cognitive demanding tasks, especially surrounding memory (2010).

L-Tyrosine

Chemical Makeup

L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid naturally manufactured by the body from the amino acid phenylalanine (Bloemendaal et al., 2018).  It is most commonly used to create proteins (Slominski et al., 2012). One of its monstrous, proven effects on the brain is its ability to improve cognitive performance in stressful situations (Young, 2007). Additionally, there are studies which back its ability to improve working memory and overall mental processing skills (Colzato et al., 2013).  For these reasons, the nootropic is typically used to replenish cognitive resources as needed. With so many modern studies proving the herb is able to bolster cognitive function (McTavish et al., 2005), it is a very wise addition to almost any nootropic stacks.

Panax Ginseng

Panax Ginseng is one of most well-known and used nootropic around the world for improving cognitive performance (Beshara, 2019).  There are a lot of clinical trials which prove the herb to offer significant benefits to cognitive function and working memory. For these reasons it is even used by Alzheimer’s patients and those suffering from dementia (2019). Ginseng has also been shown in a number of modern studies to improve overall mental activity, attention-span, alertness, and energy (Balch, 2010).

Poria Mushroom

Poria Mushroom has been used for more than two thousand years in traditional Chinese medicine (Li et al., 2019). It has been hailed a significant memory booster by many Eastern cultures (Lin et al., 2012).  Most of its cognitive benefits purportedly come from its ability to increase cerebral blood flow (Sun et al., 2021).  Its powerful memory-boosting properties make it an excellent treatment for dementia and memory repair (Lin et al., 2012). For these reasons, Poria Mushroom is commonly used to help treat a variety of neurogenetic disorders (2012).  It is also heavily associated with enhanced learning ability and associated memory recall (Wu et al., 2020).

Rhodiola Crenulate

Rhodiola Crenulata is also knonw as the “Golden Root” in many Eastern cultures (Orr, 2014). The herb itself survives in some of the most extreme environments and can be harder to come by. It offers one of the most powerful nootropic aids to cognitive ability, releasing mental tension and honing mental acuity (2014). It can also improve circulation to the brain and is well-known to act as a precursor for neurotransmitters used in cognitive function (Tabassum et al., 2012).  For these reasons, it is one of the most common nootropics selected for career-focused and entrepreneur nootropic stacks (2012). Sometimes, it is combined with Ginkgo Biloba to improve mental endurance (Zhang et al., 2009, Al-Kuraishy, 2015).

Final Words on Nootropic Supplements for Memory

All-in-all, there are many nootropics which offer natural boosts to memory and cognitive support.  The nootropics on this list are some of the most commonly used for memory storage and memory recall. They have some of the greatest historic, traditional use, and are easy to add to almost any nootropic stack. Some people use more than one memory nootropic, adding multiple selections to their nootropic stack to achieve an even greater memory effect.

A Note From NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.

Sources

Al-Kuraishy H. M. (2015). Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology. Vol. 5(1). Pp. 7–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/jice.20151123043202

Balch, P. (2010). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Fifth Edition. Avery Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-58333-400-3

Beshara, J., Engle, D., and Haynes, K. (2019). Beyond Coffee. Monocle Publishing. ISBN 9781544505459

Bloemendaal, M., Froböse, M. I., Wegman, J., Zandbelt, B. B., van de Rest, O., Cools, R., and Aarts, E. (2018). Neuro-Cognitive Effects of Acute Tyrosine Administration on Reactive and Proactive Response Inhibition in Healthy Older Adults. eNeuro. Vol. 5(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0035-17.2018

Chevallier, A. (2016). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Third Edition. DK Publishing. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1-4654-4981-8

Colzato, L., Jongkees, B., Sellaro, R., and Hommel, B. (2013). Working memory reloaded: tyrosine repletes updating in the N-back task. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience. Vol. 7. Pp. 200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00200

Cox, K., Pipingas, A., and Scholey, A. (2015). Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population. J Psychopharmacol. Vol. 29(5). Pp. 642-51. DOI: 10.1177/0269881114552744

Dodd, F., Kennedy, D., Riby, L., and Haskell-Ramsay, C. (2015). A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Vol. 232(14). Pp. 2563-76. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-3895-0

Farhana, K., Malueka, R., Wibowo, S., & Gofir, A. (2016). Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. PMID: 2795915. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2795915

Giesbrecht, T., Rycroft, J., Rowson, M., and De Bruin, E. (2010). The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness. Nutr Neurosci. Vol. 13(6). Pp. 283-90. DOI: 10.1179/147683010X12611460764840

Giménez, R., and Aguilar, J. (1998). Effects of CDP-choline administration on brain striatum platelet-activating factor in aging rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 344(2–3). Pp. 149-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(98)00035-1.

Gohil, K., Patel, J., & Gajjar, A. (2010). Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. Vol. 72(5). Pp. 546–556. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.78519

Grieb P. (2014). Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues. CNS drugs. Vol. 28(3). Pp. 185–193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-014-0144-8

Kievit, R. A., Fuhrmann, D., Borgeest, G. S., Simpson-Kent, I. L., & Henson, R. (2018). The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank. Wellcome open research, 3, 38. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14241.2

Kushairi, N., Phan, C., Sabaratnam, V., David, P., and Naidu, M. (2019). Lion’s Mane Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. Suppresses H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage and LPS-Induced Inflammation in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons and BV2 Microglia. Antioxidants. Vol. 8. Pp. 261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080261

Li, X., He, Y., Zeng, P., Liu, Y., Zhang, M., Hao, C., Wang, H., Lv, Z., & Zhang, L. (2019). Molecular basis for Poria cocos mushroom polysaccharide used as an antitumour drug in China. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine. Vol. 23(1). Pp. 4–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13564

Lin, Z., Gu, J., Xiu, J., Mi, T., Dong, J., and Tiwari, J. K. (2012). Traditional chinese medicine for senile dementia. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. PMID: 21808655. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/692621

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