The Nootropics Library: Rhodiola Crenulata

Everything You Need To Know About Rhodiola Crenulata

General Information

Scientific Name: Rhodiola crenulata (or Rhodiola rosea)

Any Other Names: Sometimes mistaken for a close cousin, Rhodiola Rosea, Golden Root

Primary Constituents: Phenylpropanoids (e.g. rosavins), salidroside, flavonoids, monoterpenes (rosiridin), and triterpenes

Country or Region of Origin: Artic Regions of Alaska, Canada, Russia, Scandinavia, and Scotland; Indigenous to the Mountainous Regions

Known Uses: Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Anti-inflammatory, Cognitive Enhancer

General History & Introduction

Rhodiola is also known as the “Golden Root” throughout many traditional cultures (Orr, 2014). It is native to artic regions and thrives in some of the most extreme environments.  In fact, the rough terrain of the mountains provide the herb a most attraction place to grow. The plant itself can cope and survive in some of the harshest, and most stressful habitats. Rhodiola has been hailed a general tonic herb, offering improvements to overall health to the whole body (2014). It is a part of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat a variety of conditions and ailments (Beshara et al., 2019).  Rhodiola may be heavily used in modern, medicinal practices all over the world, however, the first documented use of the herb dates back to 90 AD when famed Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides recorded its benefits (Morris, 2019).

Nootropic Benefits of Rhodiola Crenulata

Cognitive Enhancer


Many cultures have turned to Rhodiola for its incredible ability to release mental tension and hone mental acuity (Orr, 2014). Rhodiola has been hailed alongside many nootropics for its ability to enhance circulation to the brain and act as a precursor for neurotransmitters critical to cognitive function (Tabassum et al., 2012). For these reasons, the herb is very commonly chosen for career-focused or entrepreneur nootropic stacks (2012).  It is frequently combined with Ginkgo biloba, which has been proven to offer endurance enhancements of the mind and body (Zhang et al., 2009, Al-Kuraishy, 2015).

Adaptogen, Stress & Anxiety

Rhodiola has been well-qualified as a nootropic adaptogen, or a general tonic which improves the entire body to some extent (Orr, 2014). These types of ingredients are very popular in both Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine.  One of Rhodiola’s best adaptogenic benefits is its ability to impact both physical and mental endurance.  It has been revered as such a strong energy booster, and it is commonly utilized in China as a “work productivity” herb (2014).  The root has the purported ability to improve the mind and body’s natural resistance to chemical and environmental stressors (Beshara et al., 2019).

Libido and Energy


In addition to its ability to provide a natural boost to energy, the natural herb is used throughout Chinese culture for its innate libido-boosting properties (Orr, 2014). Many ancient Chinese recipes have included Rhodiola for its incredible ability to relieve fatigue and provide a smooth energy boost (2014). Rhodiola is used to improve one’s ability to focus and maintain endurance (Beshara et al., 2019). It is also frequently turned to for its stamina-boosting properties (2019).

Other Benefits

Some sources have claimed the herb provides a great boost to immune system even being able to reduce the risk of catching the common cold (Orr, 2014).  In fact, it is a traditional Chinese remedy for improving the overall immune system (Beshara et al., 2019).  Rhodiola is used for its anti-inflammatory properties. Some athletes even use the herb to reduce some types of muscle damage.  The root is also frequently (and successfully) used as a natural, holistic treatment for depression (2019).

Dosing and Usage Information


Rhodiola has traditionally been consumed as a tea or tincture, however, it is more popularly consumed today as a dietary supplement (Orr, 2014). Normal daily doses of the herb in its supplement form range from 100 to 1000 mg or more, depending upon the extraction potency.

Side Effects

While Rhodiola is generally considered safe for consumption within normal established daily values, it should not be taken during pregnancy, while breastfeeding, during menstruation, or if prone to kidney stones (Orr, 2014).

Other Important Information

Rhodiola Crenulata is commonly mistaken for, or used interchangeably with a close cousin, Rhodiola Rosea.  Rhodiola Rosea is a species within the same family, but it lacks the same quality of salidroside, a component that contributes to a large percentage of the favorable benefits produced by the plant (Orr, 2014). Besides being included in several Ancient Chinese remedies, Rhodiola has also been hailed as a holistic powerhouse in Russian medicine.  The Russians revered the plant for its versatile ability to favorably impact many aspects of human health, including neurological and psychiatric problems. It has been especially respected for its ability to aid in schizophrenia and depression (2014).


Rhodiola is surprisingly versatile, allowing nootropic enthusiasts the ability to modify many aspects of their neurotransmitter production and regular cognitive routine.  It is a strong adaptogen, an alluring libido booster, and an effective mood booster (Orr, 2014). Rhodiola may appear less often in the tabloids, so to speak, but there is no mistaking its power as an electrifying nootropic influence!  It is no wonder it is in many popular proprietary blends and nootropic stacks.

A Note from NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.


Al-Kuraishy H. M. (2015). Central additive effect of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea on psychomotor vigilance task and short-term working memory accuracy. Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology. Vol. 5(1). Pp. 7–13. DOI:

Beshara, J., Engle, D., and Haynes, K. (2019). Beyond Coffee. Monocle Publishing. ISBN 9781544505459

Morris, J. (2019). Smart Plants: Power Foods and Natural Nootropics For Optimized Thinking, Focus, and Memory. Sterling Epicure Publishing. New York, New York. Pp. 104-105. ISBN 978-1-4549-3342-7.

Orr, S. (2014). The New American Herbal. Clarkson Potter Publishers. New York, New York. ISBN 978-0-449-81993-7.

Tabassum, N., Rasool, S., Malik, Z., Ahmad, F. (2012). Natural Cognitive Enhancers. Journal of Pharmacy Research. Vol. 5(1). ISSN: 0974-6943.

Zhang, Zj., Tong, Y., and Zou, J. (2009). Dietary supplement with a combination of Rhodiola crenulata and Ginkgo biloba enhances the endurance performance in healthy volunteers. Chin. J. Integr. Med. Vol. 15. Pp. 177–183. DOI:

The Nootropics Library: Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia)

Everything You Need To Know About Tongkat Ali

General Information

Scientific Name: Eurycoma longifolia

Any Other Names: Pasak bumi

Primary Constituents: Glycoprotein (Eurycomanol, Eurycomanone, Eurycomalactone)

Country or Region of Origin: Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines

Known Uses: Energy, Stamina, Endurance, Aphrodisiac, Libido Booster, Topical Pain Relief for Headaches and Stomach Aches, and General Tonic


General History & Introduction

Tongkat Ali is a medium-sized shrub and commonly used in a variety of supplements and beverages.  It is prevalent throughout Indochina and Indonesia. The plant has a strong presence in much folklore and culture in the area as a versatile tonic, holistic medicine, aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and general health supplement (Rehman et al., 2016).   Both established literature and empirical studies have shown Tongkat’s long established value in reducing anxiety (Khanijo and Jiraungkoorskul, 2016). It is no wonder that the plant’s combined benefits to physical performance have made it popular in the world of athletics (2016).  Tongkat has a lot to offer and is an extremely versatile herb.

Nootropic Benefits of Tongkat Ali

Energy, Stamina Booster


Both traditional and modern cultures have turned to Tongkat for its incredible energy-boosting properties (Rehman et al., 2016).  The plant has gained popular traction within the body building and athletic communities by offering increased muscle strength and endurance (Khanijo and Jiraungkoorskul, 2016).  There are studies which suggest the herb can enhance energy utilization and energy production. Tongkat also contributes to stamina by helping the body sustain more energy overtime and reducing fatigue (2016).

Aphrodisiac, Libido Booster

Tongkat is well-known throughout much of Asia as an herbal remedy for erectile dysfunction (Tambi and Imran, 2010). In fact, it has been stated that the herb can not only relieve stresses which prevent a stable libido, but many studies purport it also boost male fertility (2010). There are many studies which have suggested it could increase testosterone and overall sexual performance (Ang et al., 2000). In fact, it is even suggested that Tongkat Ali got one of its traditional nicknames “Ali’s Walking Stick” in reference to its aphrodisiac properties (Rehman et al., 2016).

Topical Pain Relief (Headaches and Stomach Aches)


Besides the fact Tongkat was used as a topical analgesic, the herb has been traditionally used for its purported antibiotic properties (Rehman et al., 2016).  The plant has extremely potent fever-reducing properties (2016). It is also well-revered for its anti-inflammatory benefits (Han et al., 2016).  Tongkat’s ability to offer topical pain relief and similar, anti-inflammatory properties, is due its ability to inactivate NF-kB signaling pathways (2016).  Additionally, the herb is known to offer antibacterial and antifungal properties (Khanijo and Jiraungkoorskul, 2016).  It has even been known to offer antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects (2016).

General Tonic and Other Benefits

Tongkat Ali is regularly used as a treatment for diarrhea, constipation and indigestion, aches, and even osteoporosis (Rehman et al., 2016). It has been used to treat syphilis and glandular swelling. It has also been used in cancer treatments and for its purported anti-aging benefits (2016). The plant has been used throughout traditional Indochina medicine as a natural treatment for anxiety (Khanijo and Jiraungkoorskul, 2016).  There are many studies which prove it to be successful in reducing stress and promoting a calm physiological state.  Part of the plant’s benefits to reduced stress and improved physiological state can be contributed to its antioxidant properties (2016).

Dosing and Usage Information

Typical dosing for Tongkat Ali as a dietary supplement is between 100 and 1000 mg a day, depending upon the potency of the extract (or dry herb). Typically, the root of the herb is used to produce extracts and supplements, as most of the active constituents are present in the roots (Rehman et al., 2016).

Side Effects

Tongkat Ali has been generally accepted as safe for use within established daily values.



Tongkat is a well-revered, popular plant and tonic throughout a large portion of Asian cultures. It is widely versatile and an easy-to-get supplement that offers many benefits to almost any nootropic stack.  It has a strong background in offering energy, stamina, aphrodisiac, pain relief, and many other benefits.  Although there are many reasons one might include this herb in their daily regimen, athletes in particular benefit from Tongkat Ali. Regardless, the herb is a valued part of traditional and modern holistic healing and a well-valued nootropic.

A Note from NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.


Ang, H., Cheang, H., and Yusof, A. (2000). Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats. Exp Anim.  Vol. 49(1). Pp. 35-8. DOI: 10.1538/expanim.49.35

Han, Y., Woo, S., Choi, M., Park, Y., Kim, S., Yim, H., and Yoo, H. (2016). Anti inflammatory and analgesic effects of Eurycoma longifolia extracts. Arch Pharm Res. Vol. 39(3). Pp. 421-8. DOI: 10.1007/s12272-016-0711-2

Khanijo, T., and Jiraungkoorskul, W. (2016). Review Ergogenic Effect of Long Jack, Eurycoma Longifolia. Pharmacognosy reviews, Vol. 10(20). Pp. 139–142. DOI:

Rehman, S. U., Choe, K., and Yoo, H. H. (2016). Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 21(3). Pp. 331. DOI:

Tambi, M. I., & Imran, M. K. (2010). Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility. Asian journal of andrology, 12(3), 376–380.

The Nootropics Library: Red Reishi Mushroom

Everything You Need To Know About Red Reishi Mushroom

General Information

Scientific Name: Ganoderma lingzhi / Ganoderma lucidum

Any Other Names: Reishi, Ling Zhi, Munnertake, Sachitake, Youngzhi, “Mushroom of Immortality”

Primary Constituents: Polysaccharides (Beta-Glucans, Coumarin, Mannitol, and Alkaloids), Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins (FIPs), Ganoderic Acids, Triterpenoids

Country or Region of Origin: Native to Asia, Europe, and North America

Known Uses: Anti-Fatigue, Mood Booster, Antioxidant and Stress Reducer, Immune System Booster, Hearth Health, and More


General History & Introduction

Red Reishi Mushrooms are native to China, most of Asia, and scattered amongst comparable climates throughout the world. Although extremely rare, they are easy to spot with their bright red or orange-hued, clam-shaped glow protruding from a tree. These mushrooms are well-known and trusted constituents of traditional Chinese medicine. In fact, some common Chinese folklore glorifies the Reishi mushroom as the “Mushroom of Immortality,” where it is known as Ling Zhi and has been utilized for thousands of years (Knechtges, 1996). The primary reason the Red mushroom was nicknamed the Mushroom of Immorality is due to its purported anti-disease properties, fighting and preventing most major diseases of modern times (Paterson, 2006). And while the mushroom has many traditional uses, today it is easier to implement into a daily regimen as a nootropic extract.

Nootropic Benefits of Red Reishi Mushroom


Despite the fact the mushroom is known throughout traditional Chinese culture as the “Mushroom of Immortality,” the Red Reishi is well-revered for its anti-fatigue effects on the mind and body (Wachtel-Galor et al., 2011). There are many bioactive constituents which may contribute to the mushrooms longevity and energy-preserving properties including nucleosides, peptides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and triterpenoids (Geng et al., 2017). And although more research is still required to determine which types of fatigue and energy the mushroom may impact, many studies prove it clear that Red Reishi offers relevant energy boosting effects (2017).

Antioxidant and Overall Cognitive Health

Many traditional and modern applications of Red Reishi involve its stress relieving properties. It is also revered for its positive effects on cognitive health.  The antioxidant effects are part of the reason the mushroom is considered a general longevity herb (Cor et al., 2018). The proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, and other bioactive compounds offer the mind and body very therapeutic effects (2018).

Mood Booster

Red Reishi Mushroom is commonly used for its mood boosting effects.  It is sometimes used to fight depression (Socala et al., 2015).  There are studies which suggest the herb can moderate mood, anxiety, and even seizure threshold (2015). Many studies propose that the mushroom’s water soluble extract has the potential to antagonize the 5-HT2A receptors which could help moderate anxiolytic-like effects toward many cognitive functions which contribute to mood (Matsuzaki et al., 2013).

Other Benefits

Red Reishi contains many bioactive components such as adenosines, flavonoids, peptides, polyphenols, and triterpenoids (Geng et al., 2017).  These components are responsible for many of the obscure, positive effects of the mushroom.  For example, Red Reishi can be found as an ingredient in many immune system support supplements.  The mushroom is also notoriously used to promote cardiovascular function and overall heart health. Part of the gains seen by the cardiovascular system are from the energy provided by the mushroom (2017). There are some Chinese medicinal recipes with Red Reishi which are used to control blood sugar (Winska et al., 2019). 

Although there is not enough empirical research available to reach a conclusion, there is some evidence which suggests that Red Reishi Mushroom may have anti-cancerous and anti-disease properties (Paterson, 2006). It has been shown to relieve blockages and pressure in the bladder. And other traditional applications of the herb are preparations meant to support respiratory health (2006).

Dosing and Usage Information

The fruiting bodies are where the Red Reishi offers most of its medicinal and culinary properties.  These are the orange-colored parts of the mushroom exposed and visible on the surface of the tree.  While these mushrooms have been foraged and consumed for thousands of years for their intrinsic value, they are commonly consumed as a healthy, purified extract via supplement.  The typical Red Reishi Mushroom dose is around 500 mg per serving, per day of extract. These extracts may be anywhere from 1:2 to 1:20 in strength, with the dose varying depending upon the strength of the extract.

Side Effects

People with liver disease or liver conditions are advised to avoid Red Reishi Mushroom.  The mushroom is generally considered safe for consumption within established daily values. Still, however rare, possible side effects may include dryness of the mouth, dryness of the nasal passageways, itchiness, rash, nausea, dizziness, headache, and diarrhea.

Other Important Information


Traditional use of Red Reishi in some cultures meant brewing the herb into an aromatic herbal tea or consuming dried or crushed preparations (Corbley, 2020).  Today, the herb is more commonly consumed as an extract. And because there are many different extracts available, it is important to consider the quality and potency of the extract (some are stronger than others).


Red Reishi Mushroom has long proven itself throughout many traditional Eastern medicines. In modern times, the mushroom is making an impact in Western healing as well, appearing in many studies and journals as of late.  The mushroom can be commonly found in longevity-based nootropic stacks and anti-fatigue/fitness supplements. Whether it is used for one of its more specific effects or as an overall health booster, it is a sensible addition to almost any daily regimen.

A Note from NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.


Cör, D., Knez, Ž., and Knez Hrnčič, M. (2018). Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Vol. 23(3). Pp. 649. DOI:

Corbley, A., (2020). Stanford Designer is Making Bricks Out of Fast-Growing Mushrooms That Are Stronger than Concrete. Good News Network.

Geng, P., Siu, K. C., Wang, Z., and Wu, J. Y. (2017). Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms. BioMed research international. Vol-Ref: 9648496. DOI:

Knechtges, D. (1996). Wen Xuan or Selections of Refined Literature. 3. Princeton University Press. Pp. 201-211. ISBN 9780691021263.

Matsuzaki, H., Shimizu, Y., Iwata, N., Kamiuchi, S., Suzuki, F., Iizuka, H., Hibino, Y., & Okazaki, M. (2013). Antidepressant-like effects of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia in rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. Vol. 13. Pp. 370. DOI:

Paterson, R., (2006). Ganoderma – A therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry. Vol. 67(18). Pp. 1985-2001. DOI:

Socala, K., Nieoczym, D., Grzywnowicz, K., Stefaniuk, D., and Wlaz, P. (2015). Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant-, and Anxiolytic-like Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Mice. Int J Med Mushrooms. Vol. 17(3). Pp. 209-18. DOI: 10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v17.i3.10

Wachtel-Galor, S., Yuen, J., Buswell, J., and Benzie, I. (2011). Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom. In Benzie, Iris F. F.; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi (eds.). Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4398-0713-2.

Wińska, K., Mączka, W., Gabryelska, K., & Grabarczyk, M. (2019). Mushrooms of the Genus Ganoderma Used to Treat Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(22), 4075.

The Nootropics Library: Shilajit

Everything You Need To Know About Shilajit

General Information

Scientific Name: Shilajit

Any Other Names: Mumijo, Andean Shilajit, Gomutra Shilajit, Karpura Shilajit

Primary Constituents: Humic/Fulvic Acid, DBP, and DBP with Chromoproteins, Oligoelements (e.g. Selenium)

Country or Region of Origin: India, Russia, Asia, South America

Known Uses: Anti-fatigue, Muscle Building

General History & Introduction

Shilajit is a common ingredient in many traditional Ayurvedic practices.  It is a black to brown colored powder and is most often found in higher altitudes, usually on mountains. Sometimes it is incorrectly referred to as a tar or resin.  Unlike resins, Shilajit is easily soluble in water and insoluble with ethanol. It has been speculated that Shilajit comes from the decomposition of resin-bearing plants; and it is loosely associated with the plants Euphorbia roleana and Trifolium repens, which may produce the substance (Agarwal et al., 2007). Typically, there are two types of Shilajit, although the powder winds up a part of many concoctions (even including other nootropics such as ashwagandha or various mushrooms).  The two types of Shilajit are Gomutra Shilajit and Karpura Shilajit (Ghosal et al., 1976).

Nootropic Benefits of Shilajit

Anti-Fatigue and Energy Booster


One of Shilajit’s most profound benefits is its ability to reduce fatigue and help the body conserve energy (Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012).  One recent study specifically revealed its potential to elicit favorable muscle growth during various workouts (Keller et al., 2019).  These energy boosts come from the herb’s ability to metabolize more ATP in the body and thus improving mitochondrial function. This study directly suggested an overall benefit to exercise performance, enhanced anti-fatigue effects, and increased muscle mass and strength (2019).

Memory and Cognitive Stimulation

Shilajit has been well-known for its ability to improve the condition of those suffering from cognitive disorders, especially those associated with aging, such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012). The herb is an excellent cognitive stimulant and has been used for centuries to promote memory formation and memory recall (2012).  For these reasons it has proven extremely useful in the fields of neurological studies.

Muscle Building and Workouts

Shilajit is a popular workout and muscle building nootropic for its ability to promote energy and reduce fatigue.  This extra resistance to tiring can give workout and fitness participants that extra burst of energy when they need it most.  There are body builders who find Shilajit extremely effective in extending the duration of their workout and the quality of their muscle gains (Keller et al., 2019).

Antioxidant and Immune System


The fulvic acid content of Shilajit possesses powerful antioxidant properties (Vucskits et al., 2010). It is able to bolster immunomodulatory response and overall immune system (Bhavsar et al., 2016).  Shilajit is also known for its adaptogenic abilities, helping the body purge stress and function more smoothly. Recent studies suggest these properties contribute to the herb’s ability to boost physical and mental performance (2016).

Other Benefits

Sometimes Shilajit is only used for its general, energy boosting effects within beverage concoctions, especially those containing milk (Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012). Since it has been so closely associated with anti-fatigue properties, it is usually consumed around breakfast time to promote improved energy and physical performance throughout the day.  The herb has also been associated with overall health and longevity (2012). Shilajit can be useful in the treatment of anemia, enlarged spleen, kidney stones, edema, bronchitis, epilepsy, nervous disorders and hemorrhoids (Ghosal et al., 1995). It has also been used as an internal antiseptic, to reduce anorexia, and to treat jaundice (1995).

Dosing and Usage Information

Generally Shilajit is consumed as a powder.  A normal supplement serving size of Shilajit would be around 250 mg of purified powder per day.

Side Effects

Most side effects are only experienced upon consuming raw or unprocessed Shilajit.  This is usually due to contaminants or fungus which can cause illness.  Purified Shilajit is generally accepted as safe for consumption within daily established values.  It is recommended that people suffering from sickle cell anemia, hemochromatosis, or thalassemia avoid using Shilajit.

Other Important Information

Traditional Ayurvedic practices classify Shilajit into four different categories. The four categories are Suvarna Shilajit, Rajat Shilajit, Tamr Shilajit and the most popular Loh Shilajit (Ghosal, 1976). Although it is most commonly known to be found in (and originates from) the Himalayas, it has been considered for its health benefits and nootropic effects for centuries (Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012).


Although minimal modern research exists on Shilajit, enough traditional, historical use merits its place in many nootropic stacks.  Obtaining a purified extract of Shilajit is the most common way to find it as a supplement.  It’s independent abilities to relieve stress and tension from the mind and body, while also promoting physical and cognitive performance makes it a wonderful part of almost anyone’s routine. Whether it is mixed into a nootropic stack in pill form, a part of a proprietary blend, or being mixed into a beverage as a powder, the herb is extremely valuable in the world of nutraceuticals and nootropics.

A Note from NooFiles

This article is intended to be used for information only.  We want to remind you that consulting your physician is recommended before adding any dietary supplement of any kind to your daily regimen.


Agarwal, S., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, K., and Khalid, K. (February 13, 2007). Shilajit: A Review. Phytotherapy Research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Vol. 21(5). Pp. 401–405. DOI:10.1002/ptr.2100

Bhavsar, S., Thaker, A., and Malik, J. (2016). Champter 51 – Shilajit. Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity. Pp. 707-716. DOI:

Carrasco-Gallardo, C., Guzmán, L., and Maccioni, R. B. (2012). Shilajit: a natural phytocomplex with potential procognitive activity. International journal of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID: 674142.

Ghosal, S., Mukherjee, B., and Bhattacharya, S. (1995). Shilajit—a comparative study of the ancient and the modern scientific findings. Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicine. Vol. 17. Pp. 1–10.

Ghosal, S., Reddy, J., and Lal, V. (May 1, 1976). Shilajit I: Chemical Constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 65(5). Pp. 772–773. DOI:10.1002/jps.2600650545

Keller, J. L., Housh, T. J., Hill, E. C., Smith, C. M., Schmidt, R. J., and Johnson, G. O. (2019). The effects of Shilajit supplementation on fatigue-induced decreases in muscular strength and serum hydroxyproline levels. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 16(1), 3.

Vucskits AV, Hullár I, Bersényi A, Andrásofszky E, Kulcsár M, Szabó J. (2010). Effect of fulvic and humic acids on performance, immune response and thyroid function in rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). Vol. 94(6). Pp. 721-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01023.x